Fresnel Hydrofoil Trimaran
The design for a solar powered, perpetual motion, hydrofoil Trimaran yacht, commissioned by HoldenManz wine estate, Cape Town.
The Fresnel Trimaran has a folding wingsail for a better lift to drag ratio, the sail's frame is a built up mechanical structure similar to an airplane wing constructed from carbon fibre with a retractable Kevlar sail covered in aero-nautical film. The sail rotates around the mast and has a series of motorised creases which catch the wind, the wingsail is actuated by motors that control these movements using solar cells and wind energy.
The combination of the Fresnel lens and holographic film clad outrigger concentrates solar power for more of an efficient output. The form of the main hull acts as one unit with the wingsail, which wraps into the main body of the hull creating a continuous surface resulting in the motorised mast changing the shape of the sail allowing it to harness more wind. The outriggers detach to transform the yacht from racing multihull Trimaran to a cruise boat for leisure. The multi-hulls use recycled carbon fibre materials to reduce the environmental damage caused during processing new carbon fibre sheets.
The multi-hull wingsail design does not carry a heavy ballast which slows down vessels, all the materials used are strong yet lightweight.
A triangulated woven polyester mesh trampoline with a vinyl coating runs the length of the Trimaran, it is connected to the wingsail which wraps itself into the main composite carbon fibre hull, the trampoline frame acts as a water piercer with a heavy ensuring a smoother ride. Wind flows over wingsail and uplift drives the Trimaran forward.
The Wingsail generates wind energy, internal gearing systems convert wind energy to electricity which can be used to part run the motors or contribute to the integrated desalination unit along with the solar cell/ fresnel clad outriggers which run the desalination unit providing up to 4 litres of drinking water per hour.
Flexible solar panels located on the top and bottom of the wingsail surfaces generate electricity using wind and solar energy.
During bright windless days, wingsails face the sun and only solar energy is generated.
On windy days, wingsails rotate to generate largest combined energy from wind and sun. At night, wingsails generate just wind energy.
The outrigger hulls can detach themselves from the main hull, they are constructed from a double section vacuum bonded PVC surface lined with Fresnel lenses and holographic film to focus the light intensity towards the sandwiched solar cells. The Fresnel trimaran also has a set of fold-out hydrofoils. When it's in monohull mode, these hydrofoils can be deployed, pushing the main hull up above the water, reducing water resistance by up to 80 percent, allowing for a fast, smooth ride that uses less fuel.
The main cabin is lined with holographic film which defracts incident light, it also acts as a prismatic concentrator which channels light towards the photovoltaic material.
The second stage to the project involves a series of elliptical tracks running across the yacht's boards attempting to harness the main hull pendulum motion to run the perpetual retrieving magnetic turbine motor.
Hydroelectric Tidal House,
Location: Llandudno, Cape Town 2015, designed 2014
The tidal house has foundations embedded into the sand or rock coastline, harnessing tidal wave power to generate electricity. The structure is made up of two shells- the outer, cast in concrete, anchors the house to the beach whilst the inner shell rises with the tide as it flows around the primary structure.
The semi circular concrete shell contains solar cells that provide an electrical supply to the living area, the cross section is made from an array of hydraulic tidal turbines which generate electricity from a renewable source of energy, the tidal wave; tides are more predictable than solar and wind energy making it simpler to find an appropriate location to harness this renewable energy source.
There are two types of extruded turbine, one type uses lightweight aluminium chambers which compress air trapped in the chamber when a wave breaks into them, this kinetic energy creates an electrical current similar to wind turbines; the second type of sustainable energy uses neodymium magnets to move through wound copper wire tubes inducing an electrical current as a wave pushes and pulls against the extruded chambers, the electrical energy can be stored in a capacitor. This type of electrical generator is electromagnetically induced. The inner shell is made from a lightweight non-ferrous aluminium monocoque structure that floats within the external bunker as the tide rushes through it. There are three modules to the living area making it easy to dismantle according to the functional requirements of the house. The outer shell is clad in a framework of cast concrete sections making it easier to transport.
The form creates a series of channels for water to travel though creating a whirlpool effect which mimics the beachcomber house itself, in order to trap as much tidal energy throughout it's structure.
Grand Cru du Siecle
With the present threat of Paris flooding, this Champagne bar acts as part of Paris' flood control infrastructure. The enclosed circular glass bar rests over a bell mouth spillway which allows water to enter from it's entire perimeter, this water is taken, via submerged canals, upstream to the impounded lakes and nearby reservoirs.
The champagne bar contributes to flood management in the city. The circular bar is zoned to direct water through it's ramps and into the spillway situated under a moveable glass clad floor.
A raised glass corridor, floats over the Seine as water rises and flows through the rest of the design. The industrial function of the bar is combined with an ethereal monocoque shell that houses the light and reflective nature of the champagne bar's interior, etched glass gives an effervescent feel with the lattice spillway filtering water as it is channelled through the underground network.
Paris's ornate manhole covers the entrances to underground conduits, this project attempts a dialogue between architecture, Paris water infrastructure and substructures as a way of managing a flooded city.
Heat Haze Hotel Rooms
The project is a design for a private client' s short stay hotel hangar that can be wheeled to different docking locations at an airport. The hotel lounge is an extension of the private jet which allows the passengers to rest for a period of 24 hours before departure, making it unnecessary to leave the private airstrip in search of accommodation whilst the plane is refuelled or maintenance checks performed. These types of pop-up hotel rooms cater to early arrivals before departure as well as connecting flights. The scheme is composed of three telescopic fibreglass polymer clad shells, the exterior contains perspex encased tritium sections that glow and have a ten year life span without the need for an external power supply. The scheme can be dismantled for easier transportation.
The hydro-pneumatic suspension sections can be moved apart similar to that of an airport passenger jet bridge, they are cantilevered from the main structural steel frame stem which locks the cantilevered hangar roof whilst counterbalancing the lounge rooms, both sections are secured at an angle into this movable structural rig which also acts as an anchor for the scheme. Rain water is filtered in order to be used by the hotel room services.
A seamless polished chrome cantilevered canopy displays the jet within a highly reflective environment which can be shuttered off when necessary, the surfaces are sealed to not only showcase the plane but keep the area clean of rain water contamination making it a self cleaning hangar. A creased rubber section connects all three fibre glass shells which expands and contracts according to the shells movements. The expandable interior sections are lined with a combination of laminated glass , photovoltaic cells and low-resolution LED Lighting which can be programmed to create any fully immersive environment which either connects you with the existing horizon line and context or completely dislocates you from it.
The design concept mimics the heat haze, shimmering effect of high temperatures during take-off and landing, altering our perception of the immediate environment, the architecture is an extension of the dynamics of it's context, using pattern recognition, digital and radioactive technology to blur the edges between the virtual and actual.
The second stage implements a hot air updraught tower to contribute to sustainable energy and environmental design considerations.
The Hydroelectric Waterfall Prison
The prison is located in the Pacific Ocean close to the Canadian coastline.
The main program is a sustainable prison which acts as a hydroelectric power station. Constructed of reinforced concrete, it's vertical structure consists of a floating tension-leg platform tethered to the seabed eliminating most vertical movement, with depths up to 2,000m.
The concrete support is connected to 4-column semi-submersibles further stabilised by a structural ring of floating Tyson turbines.
The prison consists of a series of cantilevered loops creating an even weight distributed throughout the rig. The contained prison surface is made from a web of reinforced steel elements embedded within holographic filtered glass panels, superimposing views of life inside and views out of the prison, this depth of field creates a surreal environments which gives the illusion of boundary-less architecture, a kaleidoscopic panopticon.
The current design uses principles behind a pumped storage hydro electric power station.
Pumped storage facilities use excess electrical system capacity, generally available at night, to pump water from one reservoir, in this case the ocean to another reservoir at a higher elevation which is the prison hold, the height of the prison hold is approximately 50 meters. During peak electrical demand, water from the prison hold is released onto the floating turbines in the ocean, and electricity is produced. At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the prison's hold.
A secondary ring of wave energy convertors (similar to The Pelamis ) float around the main structure which are used to pump and store water into the main section of the design, the prison's hold. The buoyancy hydro force within the funnel of the main concrete vessel structure contributes to the pressure pumping water up into the prison volume hold before it is let out through it’s surface onto the Tyson turbines below, this alters the height of the prison deck and the pressure hydro release. The sored ocean water is distributed through the nozzles within the carbon fibre clad cantilevered outer prison surface. The surface choreographs the amount of pressure and water to fall onto the floating Tyson turbines below, controlling the amount of electricity generated.
Floating Tyson turbines turn a shaft when water falls onto them, powering an electrical generator housed housed within the primary concrete structure located in the artificial cliff-side. Underwater cables run the electrical power to the mainland.
In light of recent advances pumped-storage hydro is the predominant renewable energy source available to balance intermittent resources, such as wind and solar. Pumped-storage facilities can enable a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and build a cleaner renewable energy capacity.
12,000 cubic meters of water are stored in the prison's hold, available as necessary, the head is 50 meters and with a contributing hydro pressure the electical energy produced is approximately 3.2MW providing on average 2,045 homes with electricity.
Prisoner cells are lined with semi transparent optical mirror which provides superimposed views into and through the cells, giving the illusion of an open plan space. The continuous loop of cells distribute weight evenly across the cantilevered ramp. Ocean water that is pumped through the cladding screens views and camouflages the prison when the turbines are operated.
The central circulation spiral staircase connects the heli-pad to the artificial cliff-side generator, it acts as a base from which to observe the inmates. Helicopters are only allowed to land when the Hydroelectric generators are shut down.
The second stage of the design will implement the ideas behind low level and high level hydroelectric power stations, the important factor is the volume of water stored within the prioson and the vertical drop. The design will be adapted for these necessary changes.
Margot Krasojevic – architect and psychologist - has attracted great interest in her conceptual and visual work. This book is an image/text collage that comprises Krasojevic’s work over the last 10 years. Containing spectacular 3D renderings of experimental architecture, it is meant for architects and students with an interest in experimental architecture and all those interested in spectacular digital visualizations.
The collection of architectural design projects included provides an overview of philosophical theories that focus on what appears to be real, presenting a range of methodologies and a set of tools for addressing this discourse. The contents have been divided into 5 sections, each chapter developing a design criteria process involving one of the following areas in philosophy: hyperreality and simulacra within postmodern philosophy, drawing on Jean Baudrillard; semiology and the authority of form; complexity and noumenon/non-Euclidean geometry; the exhausted confines of structuralist theory according to Roland Barthes; and lastly authenticity, with the aim to describe how we perceive reality and the urban fabric. Incorporating the ontological potential of space into a design process and part of a set of design criteria will help develop an understanding of the conditions under which forms and design criteria are generated.
ELECTRIC CORAL REEF STATION
A framework of moveable steel girders and steel reef ball structures is designed in a way to support the growth of natural coral. The design’s section shows the moveable Meta balls connected to electrical cable that is attached to floating solar panels on the water surface. Small bits of natural coral are attached to this steel frame in order to generate further growth. This electrical current is low enough for divers to swim around the structure but strong enough to create an electric field around the frame which condenses dissolved calcium carbonate out of seawater and attaches itself to the steel frame in order to build the limestone skeleton.
The coral fragments tied to the calcium carbonate covered frame help limestone skeleton growth which is the foundation for natural corals. Coral is important be it natural or artificial as it buffers the impact of hurricanes and tsunamis in coastal regions. By slowing down and reducing the force of waves as they approach the shore, reefs can diminish the distance and amplitude of the waves travelling inland. The healthier and more structurally complex a reef is the more friction it provides and the better it protects the coastline, mitigating coastal damage. This project supports the growth and protection of coral reefs for their beauty and biodiversity.
I have recently completed a proposal for an electric coral reef station which floats between areas that require coral reefs to dissipate storms near coastlines. The complex geometry used in the station further buffers oncoming waves slowing them down in the process, floating solar cells power the electric circuit which stimulates limestone and coral growth onto the meta cages which are dropped into the ocean to stimulate coral growth:
Hanging Hotel/Suspended campsite
The following project is situated in Massif de L’ Esterel, (Gorges Du Vedron) South of France. The architecture dictates and choreographs our perceptions of immediate contexts and environments.
The hanging platforms offer a rest for rock climbers, a pause enabling them to enjoy the views and environment before continuing their journey. The surfaces are partly embedded partly protruding from the existing rock face structure. A grid of borehole foundations injected into the rock face expand into the existing granite, clamping the main body of the structure into the façade. The hanging hotel creates a serious of polarised glass spaces which protect the climber from glare reflecting light in an uniform direction creating an illusion that the sun is in a lower position than it is and therefore negating glare, Uvb light rays are reduced by using holographic filtered compound glass, this reduces the number and types of wavelengths entering the spaces which in turn reduces the harmful uVb rays, the holographic filters split the white light with a prism affect, the filters are removable and this effect can be taken advantage of. This hi tech prism louver system almost completely reflects direct incident light, but admits diffuse zenith light. The dismountable concave reflection louvers wrap themselves round the pods acting as partly a shading system, they also heighten the experience and the view, a filter that allows to choreograph the view as it is in all its reality but whereby mirages and misleading illusions, at these altitudes, are controlled and edited by these pods creating clear and real images of the immediate environment, alternatively, the pods choreograph a heightened yet dislocated relationship with the real perception of existing views, an alternate reality by using the prismatic optical elements which divide colour with changing viewing points.
The pods naturally induced visual hallucinations resulting from altitude and exhaustion. The pods also simulate a self contained environment suspended from the immediate environment allowing the climber to rest providing a meditative space before continuing, important for mental strength and physical resolve. For the prevention/containment/ of anomalous perceptual experiences during mountain climbing. The spaces within the hotel can either enhance the perception of the surrounding area or block it to aid recovery and over exposure.
The main shell of the hotel is a carbon fibre reinforced polymer shell which very much like the tarpauline tent is flexible yet strong, the main load is carried by the walkway, columns, horizontal foundations which pin the reinforced glass pods and carbon shell to the granite cliff face like a portal edge.
1. Half constructed half evacuated from cliff face structure is pinned into position hanging as a tent or portal edge.
2. The steel horizontal foundations
2. Timber cross beams bored into the cliff face protrude enough to rest on columns which carry the majority of the walkway load.
3. The columns sit into the rock and strengthen under load.
4. Columns play an auxiliary structural role, the columns are flexible and can move slightly to compensate for uneven walkway load bearing.
5. Timber cross beams have triangular wedges attached to edge so when they are driven into trapezoidal holes in the cliff the wedges are pushed into the timber beams creating a very tight fit into the rock itself.
6. The ropes and reinforced guide frames are clipped into the cliff face and can be moved as necessary. Portaledges sit into the rock.
7. The main body of the structure is partly supported by existing rock, it’s centre of gravity is positioned on the ledge allowing the structure to lean back into the granite cliff face making it easier to clip into the horizontal foundations.
8. The project is a hanging hotel with viewing platform which provides structural security for climbers, a rest stop to enjoy the view.
The section of cliff face is secured to the rock and provides a stable meditative wildlife sanctuary.
9. Finger and fist jams are part of the concrete surface structure sprayed into the boreholes and over the surfaces allowing climbers more security before climbing onto platforms. An artificial climbing surface.
Fractal Tower, 2007
Complex geometry highlights the fact that the physical world is limited through our perception and long standing relationship with Euclidean geometry, confining and retaining the possibilities.
Immanuel Kant argues, that the mind plays an active role in constituting the features of experience and limiting the mind's access to the empirical realm of space and time, that perception is based upon experience of external objects and a priori knowledge (empiricism and rationalism).
Things that we perceive are apparently unknowable, as they themselves are mere concepts; yet without concept, intuition is nondescript; without intuition, concept is meaningless. Just because we think and feel about things does not make what we think or feel reality, surely the virtual then is a type of reality in itself, just because we do not experience all realities does not mean they are not present or impossible to engage with as concepts, our mind orders the world allowing us to comprehend and appropriate, however, I believe the only reason we might never overcome the constraints of our own mind is if we remain tied to the constraints of euclidean geometry.
If perception is confined by mathematics and the science of the natural, empirical world then we must work with non-euclidean geometry and software to expand the definition of real in order for a new soft environment into which architecture and typology can be manifested to exist and evolve.
Euclidean geometry attempted to provide a singular truth, defining real, however, this notion was destroyed with the introduction of non-euclidean geometry, bringing about major changes in the philosophy of mathematics. Non-Euclidean geometry shattered Kant's paradigm, paving a way forward to new schools of thought in formalism.
This project uses non-euclidean geometry to create a soft environment.
The tower, screens and reflects the urban fabric altering our perception of it, it's programme is an ever-increasing gallery space suspended within a hyperbolic surface. The plan does not dictate its perceived presence as pattern iterations distort by reflecting geometries (dislocating physical from predetermined perceived), affecting how the individual appropriates this space. Fractal reflections and physical hyperbolic geometry simulates an illusion of the Tower within a virtual context defined as a soft environment. The tower's perceived space continually morphs as a result of the surface renderings and reflections, whose perceived boundaries and physical transitions are non-static. The tower's physical geometry defines a soft environment, a new context for appropriation which further redefines the physicality of the tower itself through peoples habitation.
The reflecting surfaces have a Hausdorff dimension2 greater than its topological dimension, characteristic of non-euclidean geometric objects.
The Tower project therefore attempts to define a virtual context through a projected physicality, whose tangibility expands along with our understanding of the objective world. What can be imagined can be communicated using software to define the design process within its soft context, in turn provoking a soft architecture. Separating perception and appropriation of architecture from the constraints of expectation.
The 3d printed ceramic light uses acrylic photoluminescent strips, that slide into grooved sections. LED bulbs sit within a rubber wheel that can be repositioned inside the light, the light radiated from the bulbs is absorbed by the phosphorescent strips and slowly re-emitted creating a glow surrounding the light, these acrylic strips slide into routed sections which guide light through the entire form. The section is detailed and complex in order to create subtle light transitions altering our perception of the entire form.
The Ordos MU US Desert Temple:
The project has been commissioned by the city of Ordos. It is an open Buddhist temple located on the outskirts of the Ordos desert, an area that is currently used for meditation and religious ceremonial offerings, Mongolian Buddhist rituals dictated the design.
Mu US desert has an extreme changing climate whose light levels affect survival and appropriation, an important design criteria. The many salt lakes and sand dunes are scattered with shocks of colourful and unexpected vegetation, these dunes whistle as the winds descend on the desert creating an almost spiritual experience; it is this environment which has suggested the location for a temple. A sporadic series of stone alters and makeshift temples lie within the desert for nomadic peoples however this will act as an ephemeral monument to religious rituals and ceremonies. In Chinese Taoist and Buddhist temples incense burns as a way of purifying the community and its physical environment as well as meditation, a temple's inner spaces are scented with thick coiled incense, which are either hung from the ceiling or on special stands. The main idea behind the form is the unwinding of smoke and incense, the incense is composed of aromatic herbs and plants found in the Ordos desert. These incense coils are extruded as bells which can burn from hours to days, and is commonly produced and used by Chinese/Mongolian culture; this was the formal strategy using a coiled unwinding form which reflects not only the ever changing environment but the smoke associated with incense burning rituals contributing to the meditative quality of the building.
The inner structural core contains the Buddhas which become more and more evident as the worshiper walks around the design. Striated sections act as a veil similar to that of as smoke filled room, glimpses and views of the statues as well as the meditation areas give an ephemeral feel to the design. The worshiper walks around in ever decreasing circles eventually becoming closer to the Buddhas and the prayer/meditation area. Offerings are left on ledges which are a part of the main structure, they are a part of the entire scheme stretching out and across creating a series of winding elements that define the route through the design as well as the ceremonial rituals that are taking place.
The main structure consists of a steel core off which an highly polished series of steel and alluminium elements unwrap, they are cantilevered giving the idea of floating, a series of suspended materials which float like smoke defining areas into which the congregation can gather or find smaller more intimate areas to make offerings. Originally the design was to include the ancient ritual of sky burials as a nod to what up until recently was a common practice within Mongolia and Tibet, the practice itself continues but not a soften as during pre-Communist reign
The fluid nature of the design allows for the size of spaces to be modified as and when required. Ordos has a very strong identity regardless of the political and social changes it has faced, the practices are ingrained within the environment and etched into the people and their culture regardless of the latest extreme planning and architectural interventions the desert is not carte blanche and should never have been treated as such.
Culture embraces change but becomes impervious when that change is redundant of environment and ritual.
Piezoelectric Playground. The Interactive Lumia Canopy in Pioneers park Belgrade
The Piezoelectric playground is a temporary structure designed for the Pioneers park in Belgrade, Serbia. It will be used as a bandstand and playground.
The canopy is a hyperbolic structure which folds in on itself draining rain water into the pool directly underneath it which diffracts light (acting as a prism) further magnifying the activities within the canopy structure. Movement agitates the semicondcuting piezoelectric crystal disks which as a result generate an electric current within the structure itself, this voltage controls the holographic glass clad canopy and optic fibre light projections choreographing a series of patterns which illuminate the immediate context according to the music or events occurring within the canopy. ; with the possible use of vibrating piezoelectric crystals releasing hydrogen and oxygen from the water molecules, piezoelectrochemical effect, supporting the hope that energy can be used to generate power from any structure which vibrates and produces noise, from passing traffic, children playing etc.
The canopy's geometry blurs the relationship between interior and exterior spaces; as it is a surface with one boundary, mathematically the form is non-orientable which focuses on the event as a way of defining it's physical presence on site.
The wooden frame's looping structure is clad in reinforced optical glass tubes which house optic fibre cables that direct the light through the canopy, the light patterns and strength is influenced by the circuit of piezoelectric crystals and diodes to change charge direction therefore continually altering the direction of light and intensity of projections depend on movement throughout the canopy or sound reverberations from music.
The canopy never lights up in the same way twice and our perception of the canopy glowing and projecting light describes a very different environment every time it is used as either a playground shelter or outdoor concert canopy.
This project was inspired by Thomas Wilfred's Clavilux projects from 1930.
Orbital Magnetic levitating LED Light
By Margot Krasojevic
The 3d printed LED diffuser is made from a lightweight ceramic or a semi transparent UV cured acrylic which gives an ethereal glow when switched on. The light geometry is a symmetrical helix which can be balanced along a central axis depoending on which surface you wish to levitate it from, the semi- conducting base creates a magnetic field around it which enables you to position the light hovering over it, when gently pushed it rotates altering it's immediate surroundings. The light can also be hung like a static ceiling pendant. The LED is positioned within the surface of the light geometry or alternatively underneath the semiconducting base to allow for free movement and rotation.